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A Civil Enforcement Officer (HCEO) also known as a Colloquially Traffic Warden in London refers to an individual who is responsible to supervise the enforcement of traffic, parking and other laws and restrictions that apply in England and Wales. The Civil Enforcement Officer in Wales is either employed by county councils or private companies whom the district councils have contracted, whereas the Civil Enforcement Officer in England is employed by either metropolitan district councils, county councils, transport for London or the London borough councils. Before the enactment of the Traffic Management Act 2004, the unjustified police traffic wardens in London employed by constabularies were responsible for controlling traffic (including traffic movement violations and on-street parking). Similarly, off-street parking violations were enforced by parking attendants who were paid by private companies and municipal authorities.

Executive Recoveries and Enforcement In London, Greater London discuss the powers of the Civil Enforcement Officer

As directed by the home secretary, the exercise of powers on the part of the Civil Enforcement Officers in Greater London is generally tenable when they put on their approved uniforms. For many crimes by CCTV or handheld devices, including those regulated by Civil Law, officers can issue the Notices of Penalty Charge. They are in a position to confiscate blue badges. They may also, under caution, interview motorists accused of disability fraud. They can make vehicles immobilized.

Notices of penalty charges may not be criminal proceedings, but if the defaulting fails to pay, licensed bailiffs may then come in to provide them with execution warrants. For several moving violations, such as driving the wrong way on a one-way system, driving in bus lanes, and executing prohibited turns, the bailiffs, also referred to as the Civil Enforcement Officers, can issue penalties. Fixed penalties for non-traffic offenses may be issued by Civil Enforcement Officers employed by certain authorities, due to the support of the Community Protection Scheme under the Police Reform Act 2002 in London. They can punish for offences like truancy, spitting, anti-social behaviour, noise violations, and the issuance of tickets for traffic violations and parking.

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In London, Greater London Executive Recoveries and Enforcement explains more about Belgium

In Belgian municipalities, city guards called Stadswachten are used as public but civil officials who can write reports to be sent to the magistrate, who in turn decides whether the City Guards' findings can be issued after a fine has been reported. Stadswachten, with their purple jackets, can be recognized.

Executive Recoveries and Enforcement In London, Greater London talk more about the Netherlands

Until 2004, municipalities in the Netherlands used Stadswachten to police the city and lacked the legislative authority to claim fines from civilians. Stadswachten has ceased to exist because the Guard divisions have been converted into Handhaving (Enforcement) Units. On their part, Handhavers (Civil Enforcement Officers) in London had some restricted civil constitutions because they do not have full police powers and yet they are considered full-fledged public officials and are sworn Special Enforcement Officers (BOAs) and are granted the power to confirm people's identity, detain them, check for hazardous people (when arrested), issue defined penalties, search for proof of identification, make arrests without a warrant, prosecute crimes and such offences, and use force with or without the use of pepper spray and baton. Most municipal/Civil enforcement officers are also prepared to make arrests with handcuffs. Much like some cities provide them with police batons for their operations to be carried out.

The Dutch law stated that pepper spray (as suggested by the City of Utrecht and Amsterdam in 2016) and a handgun (as specified by the City of Enschede and EDE) can be given to certain Civil Enforcement Officers (BOAs) only if the need of the issuance is proved by the mayor and the city council. A handgun, baton, and pepper spray are also fitted for the Civil Enforcement Officers who serve on guard duty and transport for the Dutch prisons, as stated by the rules of engagement in the Dutch Correctional Facilities (Dienst Vervoer en Ondersteuning). If needed, they will also lend the Dutch police force a helping hand. Anyone who does not comply with the Civil Enforcement Officers' order risks being arrested.

The Department of Justice ordered the creation in 2014 of a national-style uniform for BOAs used by municipalities. Prior to this, every city had its own uniform. Although the new uniforms' colours and elements were different and special, they were based on the uniform of the National Police. The uniform, called 'Handhaving', consists of blue cargo trousers, a chest-side checked band, and two navy and kbaly-blue coloured polo shirts. On the back and on the chest of the uniform, the text "Handhaving" is encrusted, while BOA patches consisting of a hand carrying a sceptre in front of a shield are encrusted on the uniform's sleeves. In Greater London, Civil Enforcement Officers put on Spanish-style police caps alongside a checker band and a metal BOA badge on the front of the caps. By law, officers are often required to put on high shoes with twisted trouser legs above them. While a few cities have yellow high-visibility vests, several cities issue anti-stab vests that have the same colours as the polo shirts to their Civil Enforcement Officers. The BOA bike patrol, vehicle patrols in marked cars or officers in plain clothing are used by many other large cities, just as motorcycle units in Rotterdam and Amsterdam are common.

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